The Development of Environmentally Responsive Smart Textile – Temperature Adaptive Smart Textile
Most of the time, general functional textiles can only passively provide one-way functions such as heat and cool (e.g., Generating-heat apparel and instantaneous cool sensation apparel) which cannot meet the wearers' needs for dynamic adjustments of human body under extreme weather or temperature change (such as temperature difference between indoors and outdoors during winter seasons or metabolic difference between intensive exercise and short break). With a higher expectation for functional and lightweights textiles, consumers hope that textiles can dynamically respond to environment and metabolic changes to improve the wearer's comfort and safety. Additionally, flexible and streamlined equipment is also developed to increase the consumers' demands for the second generation of functional textiles (especially majored in temperature/humidity responsive smart textiles).
From a macroscopic perspective, environmentally responsive smart textiles for apparel used are largely concentrated on Temperature. Adaptive material and Moisture Adaptive materials. In this article, we introduce the Temperature. Adaptive smart textiles developed by the manufacturer HeiQ and Taiwan manufacturer Fu Hsun Fiber as follows.
New Applications of Permeable and Waterproof Textiles By Domestic and Foreign Manufacturers
A. HeiQ: Smart Temp Activated Cooling – finish treatment of Temperature. Adaptive Smart Textiles
(I) The First Generation of Smart Temp: creating continuous cooling with water vapor permeability.
By Adaptive AC-03, HeiQ Smart Temp is the first generation of the Temperature. Adaptive smart textiles that focuses on continuous cooling. When the body temperature rises, the material becomes hydrophobic and shrinks to form a huge capillary structure that not only accelerates the diffusion of sweat but also speeds up the permeability of water vapor to create a continuous cooling effect. When the body or ambient temperature drops, the material becomes hydrophilic and swells to form a small capillary structure that not only decelerates the diffusion of sweat but also slows down the permeability of water vapor. As of today, HeiQ Smart Temp has been applied to hundreds of millions of clothing of over 50 brands (such as Dickies, Hanes, etc.) around the world.
(II) The Second Generation of Smart Temp Activated Cooling: creating instant cooling with "melting point mechanism"
This year (2018), HeiQ further introduces the new Temperature. Adaptive smart textiles with Adaptive AC-06 which is added the hydro-functional polymer to generate a dynamic adjustment mechanism for "PCM-Phase Change Material". When the wearer's skin temperature exceeds the range between 28°C and 32°C, an instantaneous cool effect will be created through melting, which not only slows down the Thermal Adaptive of the body but also reduces the accumulation of the sweat to improve overall cooling efficiency. According to the test results, clothing that uses Adaptive AC-06 fabric can reduce skin temperature by 1.5°C to 2.5°C so that the athlete’s body temperature is maintained at a comfortable range to improve exercise performance. Additionally, the material can maintain a 100% cooling function after 40 times of washing.
Upgraded from Smart Temp, HeiQ Smart Temp Activated Cooling is the Temperature. Adaptive smart textiles to meet the wearers' needs for instantaneous cool and long-lasting cooling textiles launched by HeiQ Switzerland this year (2018) .The combination of HeiQ Adaptive AC-03 and -06 opens up new possibilities for the cooling mechanism of the HeiQ Smart Temp product series by providing wearers with instantaneous cool and long-lasting cooling respectively or at the same time. With two cooling mechanisms working independently of each other, one or two effects can be added to achieve the best cooling effects depending on each fabric type and end-product application scenario.
B. Domestic Manufacturers: Fu Hsun Fiber and Taiwan Textile Research Institute work together to develop Temperature. Adaptive smart textiles
Unlike the one-way moisture wicking technology of general functional fabrics, Fu Hsun Fiber introduces Temperature. Adaptive smart textiles with two-way adjustments. Through technical cooperation with Taiwan Textile Research Institute, Fu Hsun Fiber uses eco-friendly resins as an initiator so that the textiles can make dynamic adjustments to moisture treatments (hydrophobic and hydrophilic) with the rise and fall of body temperature and ambient temperature. When the temperature is high (above 35°C), the textile will increase the rate of evaporation and take away the heat so that the wearer feels cool. When the temperature is low (about 20°C), the textile will decrease the rate of evaporation and maintain the heat so that the wearer feels warm.
A. HeiQ：Smart Temp Activated Cooling感溫型後加工整理
HeiQ第一代感溫型智慧材料Smart Temp著重於持久性涼感（continuous cooling），採用 Adaptive AC-03藥劑，當身體溫度升高時，材質變弱親水性進而解膨潤後形成巨大毛細結 構，加速汗水的擴散與更快的蒸發性涼感；而當身體或環境溫度降低時，材質變強親水性， 遇水膨潤後水分擴散速度變慢，導致織物孔洞變小而降低透氣性。截至目前為止已被全球50 多個主要品牌（如：Dickies、Hanes等）、上億件服裝所應用。
(II)第二代Smart Temp Activated Cooling：以「熔點機制」創造快速涼感
今（2018）年度HeiQ 進一步推出新型感溫型智慧材料，Adaptive AC-06含水性功能聚合物（hydro functional polymer），可產生「類PCM相變化材料」的動態調節機制。當穿著者皮膚溫度「超過28至32°C之間的範圍」時，會透過熔化作用賦予瞬間涼爽感，以減緩身體熱感和汗液的積聚而提高涼感效率。經測試結果，採用Adaptive AC-06布料的服裝可使皮膚溫度降低1.5°C至2.5°C，並幫助運動員保持舒適的體溫，進而提升運動效能。該材料耐水洗次數可達40次仍能有100%涼感機能。
HeiQ Smart Temp Activated Cooling是瑞士HeiQ公司在今（2018）年推出的Smart Temp升級版感溫型智慧材料，同時實現對布料「涼的快（ instantaneous cool）」與「涼的久（long-lasting cooling）」兩種需求。HeiQ Adaptive AC-03和-06的組合為HeiQ Smart Temp產品系列的涼感機制帶來新的可能性，分別可為穿著者提供即時涼感、持久性冷卻或同時具備兩種效果。兩個涼感作用機制彼此獨立工作，可根據每種織物類型和最終產品使用情境，選擇添加一種或兩種效果，以實現最佳涼感效果。